90+ Surveys of Experimental Research on Reading Instruction

Dr. Patrick Groff

by Dr. Patrick Groff
NRRF Board Member & Senior Advisor

Dr. Patrick Groff, Professor of Education Emeritus San Diego State University, has published over 325 books, monographs, and journal articles and is a nationally known expert in the field of reading instruction.


  1. Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT.
  2. Almasi, J. F. (1994). Toward disciplined inquiry: A methodological analysis of whole language research. Educational Psychologist, 29, 193-202.
  3. Anderson, R. C. et al. (1985). Becoming a nation of readers. Washington, DC.: U.S. Department of Education.
  4. Anderson, T. H. & West, C.K. (1995). Commentary: An analysis of a qualitative investigation: A matter of whether to believe. Reading Research Quarterly, 30, 562-569.
  5. Balmuth, M. (1982). The roots of phonics. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  6. Bennett, W. J. (1986). First lessons: A report on elementary education in America. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
  7. Blumenfeld, S. L. (1996). The whole language/OBE fraud. Boise, ID: Paradigm.
  8. Brady, S. A. & Shankweiler, D. P. (1991). Phonological processes in literacy. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  9. Bryant, P. L. & Bradley, L. (1985). Children’s reading problems. New York, NY: Basil Blackwell.
  10. California State Board of Education. (1997). Collection of articles on beginning reading instruction. Sacramento, CA: CSBE.
  11. Carnine, D., Silbert J., & Kameenui, E. (1990). Direct reading instruction. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
  12. Center, Y., Wheldall, K., & Freeman, L. (1992). Evaluating the effectiveness of Reading Recovery: A critique. Educational Psychology, 12, 263-274.
  13. Center, Y., Wheldall, K., Freeman, L., Outhred, L., & McNaught, M. (1995). An experimental evaluation of Reading Recovery. Reading Research Quarterly, 30, 240-263.
  14. Chall, J. S. (1967 and 1983). Learning to read: The great debate. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  15. Chall, J. S. (1989). Learning to read: The great debate twenty years later. Phi Delta Kappan, 71, 521-38.
  16. Chapman, J. W., & Tunmer, W. E. (1991). Recovering Reading Recovery. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 17, 59-71.
  17. Cornoldi, C. & Oakhill, J. (1996). Reading comprehension difficulties. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  18. Curry, L. (1990). A critique of the research on learning styles. Educational Leadership, 48 (2), 50-56.
  19. 19. Dreher, M. J. & Slater, W. H. (1992). Elementary school literacy. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon.
  20. Feitelson, D. (1988). Facts and fads in beginning reading. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
  21. Finn, C. E. (1986). What works: Research about teaching and learning. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
  22. Foorman, B. R. (1995). Research on the great debate: Code-oriented versus whole language approaches to reading instruction. School Psychology Review, 24, 276-292.
  23. Glynn, T., Crooks, T., Bethune, N., Ballard, K., & Smith, J. (1992). Reading Recovery in context: implementation and outcome. Educational Psychology, 12(3 & 4), 249-261.
  24. Gough, P., Ehri, T. L. C., & Treiman, R. (1992). Reading acquisition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  25. Groff, P. (1987). Preventing Reading Failure. Portland, OR: Halcyon House.
  26. Groff, P. (1989). Two reactions to the Report Card on Basal Readers. Bloomington, IN: ERIC, Indiana University.
  27. Groff, P. (1991). An analysis of the debate: Teaching reading without conveying phonics information. Interchange, 21 (4), 1-14.
  28. Groff, P. (1998). Groff responds to Lapp and Flood. Reading Teacher. 52(2), 144.
  29. Groff, P. (1991). Teachers’ opinions of the whole language approach to reading instruction. Annals of Dyslexia. 41, 83-95.
  30. Groff, P. (1991). Word recognition and critical reading. Journal of Reading, Writing, and Learning Disabilities International. 7 (1), 17-31.
  31. Groff, P. (1994). Differing views on context cues. Interchange. 25, 171-81.
  32. Groff, P. (1996). Questions and conclusions from a discussion of Reading Recovery. Effective School Practices, 15(3), 24-29.
  33. Groff, P. (1994). Reading Recovery: Educationally sound and cost-effective? Effective School Practices, 13(1), 65-69.
  34. Groff, P. (1996). Whole language: It’s a matter of a wrong assumption. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 12, 217-226.
  35. Groff, P. (1998). Preventing reading failure. Portland, OR: Halcyon House.
  36. Groff, P. & Seymour, D. Z. (1987). Word recognition. Springfield, IL: C.C. Thomas.
  37. Grossen, B. (1997). 30 years of research: what we now know about how children learn to read. Santa Cruz, CA: Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning.
  38. Grossen, B. & Carnine, D. (1990). Translating research on initial reading instruction into classroom practice. Interchange, 21, 15-23.
  39. Grossen, B., Coulter, G., & Ruggles, B. (1996). Reading Recovery: An evaluation of benefits and costs. Effective School Practices, 15(3), 6-24.
  40. Hedley, C. N., et al. (1995). Thinking and literacy. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  41. Henderson, L. (1982). Orthography and word recognition in reading. New York, NY: Academic.
  42. Heibert, E.H. (1996). Revisiting the question: What difference does Reading Recovery make to an age cohort? Educational Researcher, 25, 7, 26-28.
  43. Hirsch, E. D. (1996). Reality’s revenge: Research and ideology. American Educator, 20 (3), 4-5, 31-46.
  44. Iverson, S. & Tunmer,W. E. (1993). Phonological processing skills and the Reading Recovery program. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 112-126.
  45. Just, M. A. & Carpenter, P. A. (1987). The psychology of reading and language comprehension. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
  46. Kameenui, E. (1991). Designing instructional strategies. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
  47. Kavale, K. A. & Forness, S. R. (1987). Substance over style: Assessing the efficacy of modality testing and teaching. Exceptional Children, 54, 228-239.
  48. Liberman, I. Y. & Liberman, A. M. (1990). Whole language vs. code emphasis: Underlying assumptions and their implications for reading instruction. Annals of Dyslexia, 40, 51-76.
  49. Macmillan, B. (1997). Why schoolchildren can’t read. London, UK: Institute of Economic Affairs.
  50. McGuinness, D. (1997). Why our children can’t read. New York, NY: Free Press.
  51. McKenna, M. C. et al. (1990). Whole language: A research agenda for the nineties. Educational Researcher, 19 (8), 3-11.
  52. Mather, N. (1992). Whole language reading instruction for students with learning disabilities: Caught in the cross fire. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 7, 87-95.
  53. Moorman, G. B., et al. (1994). The rhetoric of whole language. Reading Research Quarterly, 29, 308-329. 13 (2), iii-xv.
  54. National Advisory Council on Adult Education (1986). Illiteracy in America: Extent, causes, and suggested solutions. Washington, D. D: U. S. Department of Education.
  55. Nicholson, T. (1991). Do children read words better in context or in lists? Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 444-450.
  56. Nicholson, T. (1989). A comment on Reading Recovery. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 24(1), 95-97.
  57. Orton Dyslexia Society (1987). Intimacy with Language. Baltimore, MD: ODS.
  58. Orton Dyslexia Society (1991). All language and the creation of literacy. Baltimore, MD: The Society.
  59. Orton, S. T. (1989). Reading, Writing, and speech problems in children and selected papers. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
  60. Pearson, P. D. (1984). Handbook of reading research. New York, NY: Longman.
  61. Pinker, S. (1994). The language instinct. New York, NY: William Morrow.
  62. Perfetti, C. A. (1985). Reading ability. New York, NY: Oxford University. 63. Pressley, M. & Menke, D. J. (1994). State-of-the-science primary-grade reading instruction or whole language? Educational Psychologist, 29, 211-215.
  63. Putnam, L. R. (1996). How to become a better reading teacher. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  64. Rayner, K. & Pollatsek, A. (1989). The psychology of reading. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  65. Rasinski, T.V. (1995). Commentary On the effects of Reading Recovery: A response to Pinnell, Lyons, DeFord, Bryk, and Seltzer. Reading Research Quarterly, 30, 264-270.
  66. Resnick, L. B. & Weaver, P. A. (1979). Theory and practice in early reading. Hilsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  67. Rieben, L. & Perfetti, C. A. (1991). Learning to read: Basic research and its implications. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  68. Samuels, S. J. & Farstrup, A. E. (1992). What research has to say about reading instruction. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
  69. Sandman, B. (1992). Learning to read: It’s time to stop the pendulum swing. California School Boards Journal, 51, 37-42.
  70. Shanahan, T., & Barr, R. (1995). Reading Recovery: An independent evaluation of the effects of an early instructional intervention for at-risk learners. Reading Research Quarterly, 30(4), 958-996.
  71. Share, D. L. & Stanovich, K. E. (1995). Cognitive processes in early reading development. Issues in Education, 1, 1-57.
  72. Shimron, J. (1996). Literacy and Education. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton.
  73. Singer, M. H. (1982). Competent reader, disabled reader: Research and application. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  74. Smith, C. B. (1994). Whole language: The Debate. Bloomington, IN: EDINFO.
  75. Snider, V. E. (1992). Learning styles and learning to read: A critique. Remedial and Special Education, 13, 6-18.
  76. Spear-Swerling, L. & Sternberg, R. J. (1996). Off track. Boulder, CO: Westview.
  77. Stahl, S. A. (1988). Is there evidence to support matching reading styles and initial reading methods? A reply to Carbo. Phi Delta Kappan, 70, 317-322.
  78. Stahl, S. A. & Miller, P. D. (1989). Whole language and language experience approaches for beginning reading: Quantitative research synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 59, 87-116.
  79. Stahl, S. A. & Kuhn, M. R. (1995). Does whole language or instruction matched to learning styles help children learn to read? School Psychology Review, 24, 393-404.
  80. Stanovich, K. E. (1996). Romance and reality. Reading Teacher, 47, 280-291.
  81. Sweet, A. P. & Anderson, J. I. (1993). Reading research into the year 2000. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  82. Sweet, R. W. (1997). Don’t Read, don’t tell. Policy Review. No. 83, 38-42.
  83. Templeton, S. & Bear, D. R. (1992). Development of orthographic knowledge ad the foundations of literacy. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  84. Thompson, G. B., Tunmer, W. E., & Nicholson, T. (1993). Reading Acquisition Processes. Philadelphia, PA: Multilingual Matters.
  85. Truch, S. (1991). The missing parts of whole language. Calgary, Canada: Foothills Educational Materials.
  86. Tunmer, W. (1989). Does Reading Recovery work? Massey University “Funding for literacy scheme stopped”, Sunday Times, London, England, Dec 4, 1994.
  87. Turner, M. & Buchard, T. (1996). Reading fever: Why phonics must come first. London, UK: Center for Policy Studies.
  88. Von Euler, C., Lundberg, I., & Lennerstrand, G. (1989). Brain and reading. London: Macmillan.
  89. Yussen, S. R. & Smith, M. C. (1993). Reading across the life span. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.